Picture
Profile picture for user RAMUS F

Franck Ramus

Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique

Faculty
Poste
Senior Research Scientist (CNRS), Adjunct Professor (ENS)

Pavillon Jardin
29 rue d'Ulm
75005 Paris, FRANCE

Laboratory
LSCP
Team
Cognitive development and pathology
Office
4th floor, office 409
Tel
+ 33 (0)1 44 32 26 19
Selected publications
International Journal article  

Peyre, H., Albaret, J., Bernard, J., Hoertel, N., Melchior, M., Forhan, A., Taine, M., Heude, B., De Agostini, M., Galera, C. & Ramus, F. (2019). Developmental trajectories of fine motor skills during the preschool period. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 28(11), 1461-1474. doi:10.1007/s00787-019-01311-x

International Journal article  

Latimier, A., Riegert, A. , Ly, S. , Peyre, H., Casati, R. & Ramus, F. (2019). Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing? npj Science of Learning, 4(15). doi:10.1038/s41539-019-0053-1

International Journal article  

Havron, N., Ramus, F., Heude, B., Forhan, A., Cristia, A. & Peyre, H. (2019). The effect of siblings on language development as a function of age difference and sex. Psychological Science, 30(9), 1333-1343. doi:10.31234/osf.io/fgpmd

International Journal article  

Couvignou, M., Peretz, I. & Ramus, F. (2019 ). Comorbidity and cognitive overlap between developmental dyslexia and congenital amusia. Cognitive neuropsychology, 36(1-2), 1-17. doi:10.1080/02643294.2019.1578205

International Journal article  

Gialluisi, A., Andlauer, T., Mirza-Schreiber, N., Moll, K., Becker, J., Hoffmann, P., Ludwig, K., Czamara, D., St Pourcain, B., Brandler, W., Honbolygó, F., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Huguet, G., Morris, A., Hulslander, J., Willcutt, E., Defries, J., Olson, R., Smith, S., Pennington, B., Vaessen, A., Maurer, U., Lyytinen, H., Peyrard-Janvid, M., Leppänen, P., Brandeis, D., Bonte, M., Stein, J., Talcott, J., Fauchereau, F., Wilcke, A., Francks, C., Bourgeron, T., Monaco, A., Ramus, F., Landerl, K., Kere, J., Scerri, T., Paracchini, S., Fisher, S., Schumacher, J., Nöthen, M., Müller-Myhsok, B. & Schulte-Körne, G. (2019). Genome-wide association scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia. Translational psychiatry, 9(1), 77. doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0402-0

International Journal article  

Lou, C., Duan, X., Altarelli, I., Sweeney, J., Ramus, F. & Zhao, J. (2019). White matter network connectivity deficits in developmental dyslexia. Human brain mapping, 40(2), 505-516. doi:10.1002/hbm.24390

International Journal article  

Peyre, H., Hoertel, N., Bernard, J., Rouffignac, C., Forhan, A., Taine, M., Heude, B. & Ramus, F. (2019). Sex differences in psychomotor development during the preschool period: A longitudinal study of the effects of environmental factors and of emotional, behavioral, and social functioning. Journal of experimental child psychology, 178, 369-384. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2018.09.002

Presentation

I am a CNRS senior research scientist and adjunct professor at the Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Department of Cognitive Studies, Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, within which I head the "Cognitive development and pathology" team.

My research bears on the development of language and social cognition in children, its disorders (developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment, autism), its cognitive and neural bases and its genetic and environmental determinants.

CV

Employment

 
since 2014
Co-director of the Master in Cognitive Science (ENS, EHESS, Université Paris-Descartes).
Adjunct professor at Ecole Normale Supérieure.
since 2011
Directeur de recherches (senior research scientist) at CNRS.
since 2002
Chargé de recherches (junior research scientist) at CNRS, Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique (UMR 8554). 
2000-2001
Marie Curie Fellow at Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London. 
Project entitled "Functional and neurological characterisation of developmental dyslexia", under the supervision of Uta Frith.
 
Talks & Posters
  • Ramus, F. (2020). Cortical oscillations for speech processing in dyslexia. Keynote speaker, Ninth Nordic Conference on the Remediation of Dyslexia, Stockholm, 20–22/08/2020.
  • Ramus, F. (2020). Epidemiology of cognitive development. Keynote speaker, International Congress of Psychology, Prague, 19-24/07/2020.
  • Ramus, F. (2019). Prevalence of developmental dyslexia: a comparison between DSM5 and ICD11 criteria. Keynote speaker, European Dyslexia Association Autumn Seminars, Växjö, Sweden, 27-29/09/2019.
  • Ramus, F. (2019). Cortical oscillations for speech processing in dyslexia. Invited speaker, Society for the Neurobiology of Language, Helsinki, 20-22/08/2019.
  • Feng, X., Altarelli, I., Li, L., Ding, G., Ramus, F., Shu, H., Monzalvo, K., Dehaene, S., Meng, X., Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2019). Universal neural anomalies in Chinese and French dyslexic children. Poster presented at the Society for the Neurobiology of Language, Helsinki, 20-22/08/2019.
  • Latimier, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. A quantitative review of the "spacing-of-tests" effect. Poster presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Aachen, 12-16/08/2019.
  • Latimier, A., Riegert, A., Ly, S. T., & Ramus, F. No matter the grain size, retrieval practice promotes long-term retention. Presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Aachen, 12-16/08/2019.
  • Guez, A., Peyre, H., Le Cam, M., Gauvrit, N., & Ramus, F. (2019). Are high-IQ students more at risk of school failure? Presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Aachen, 12-16/08/2019.
  • Guez, A., Peyre, H., Piazza, M., Heude, B. & Ramus, F. (2019). Early cognitive and environmental predictors of arithmetic skills at 11.5 years old. Poster presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Aachen, 12-16/08/2019.
  • Ramus, F. (2019). Epidemiological investigations of dyslexia in France. Invited speaker at 1st SRLD Conference, Padova, Italy, 7-8/06/2019.
  • Latimier, A., Riegert, A., Peyre, H., Ly, S. T., Casati, R., & Ramus, F. (2019). Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing ? Poster presented at the International Convention of Psychological Science, Paris,  7-9/03/2019.
  • Guez, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2019). Sex Differences in Academic Achievement Are Moderated By Test Type. Poster presented at the International Convention of Psychological Science, Paris,  7-9/03/2019.

Archive

  • Havron, N., Cristia, A., Ramus, F., & Peyre, H. (2018). You best have a sister: The effect of siblings on language development as a function of age-gap and sex. Presented at Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, 2-4/11/2018.
  • Ramus, F. (2018). Par quelles méthodes enseigner et remédier la lecture ? Résultats des évaluations internationales. Salon Educ, Bruxelles, 4/10/2018.
  • Ramus, F. (2018). How to help students remember what they are taught? Lecture at Capital Normal University, Beijing, 7/06/2018.
  • Guez, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2018). Early Environmental and Cognitive Predictors of Learning Abilities. Poster présenté à Life History Research Society Conference 2018, Paris, 30/05/2018.
  • Peyre H., Albaret, J. M., Bernard, J. Y., Hoertel, N., Melchior, M., Forhan, A., Heude, B., De Agostini, M., Galéra, C., & Ramus, F. (2018). Developmental trajectories of fine motor skills during the preschool period. Présenté à Life History Research Society Conference 2018, Paris, 1/06/2018.
  • Guez, A., Panaïotis, T., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2018). Predictors of the IQ-Achievement Gap in France. Présenté à Life History Research Society Conference 2018, Paris, 30/05/2018.
  • Ramus, F. (2018). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: pitfalls and promise. Laboratoire de cartographie fonctionnelle du cerveau, Hôpital Erasme, Bruxelles, 22/05/2018.
  • Ramus, F. (2017). Are there visual problems in certain cases of dyslexia? Keynote speaker, European Dyslexia Association Autumn Seminar, Munich, 6-8/10/2017.
  • Ramus, F. (2017). Phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an, China, 4/09/2017.
  • Su, M., Zhao, J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Zhou, W., Gong, G., Ramus, F., & Shu, H. (2017, 29/06). Alterations in white matter pathways underlying phonological and morphological processing in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Poster presented at the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Vancouver.
  • Ramus, F. (2017). The respective roles of phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Keynote speaker, Symposium International sur la Littéracie à l’Ecole / International Symposium for Educational Literacy, Ajaccio, 26-27/06/2017.
  • Couvignou, M., Peretz, I., & Ramus, F. (2017, 18/06). Is there a cognitive relationship between congenital amusia and developmental dyslexia? Poster presented at The Neurosciences and Music VI - Music, sound and health, Boston.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: pitfalls and promises. Golden Bell lecture, Beijing Normal University, 1/12/2016.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Seminar of Shu laboratory, Beijing Normal University, 30/11/2016.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Brain lateralization and sex differences in dyslexia. Invited speaker, The Dyslexia Foundation Extraordinary Brain Symposium XV: The Geschwind - Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 19-24/06/2016.
  • Jednoróg, K., Płoński, P., Gradkowski, W., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Van Ermingen-Marbach, M., … Ramus, F., & Bogorodzki, P. (2016, June). Multi-parameter machine learning approach to the neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyslexia. Poster presented at the Dyslexia Foundation Extraordinary Brain Symposium XV: The Geschwind - Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later, St-Croix, US Virgin Islands.
  • Altarelli, I., Dubois, J., & Ramus, F. (2016, 24/06). Relationship between cortical thickness and myelination in developmental dyslexia. Poster presented at The Dyslexia Foundation Extraordinary Brain Symposium XV: The Geschwind - Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later, St-Croix, US Virgin Islands.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Keynote speaker, International Workshop on Reading and Developmental Dyslexia, Bilbao, Spain, 5-7/05/2016.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Neuroanatomy of dyslexia. International Symposium on Dyslexia and Dyscalculia, München, 19-20/04/2016.
  • Saksida, A., Ramus, F., & Genedys consortium. Phonological skills, visual attention span, and visual stress in developmental dyslexia. British Dyslexia Association international conference, Oxford, 10-12/03/2016.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. European Workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology, Bressanone, Italy, 25-29/01/2016.
  • Ramus, F. (2016). Developmental dyslexia: from genes to brain to reading. Neurobiology of language and communication, FENS-Hertie Winter school, Obergurgl, Austria, 3-9/01/2016.  (part 1)  (part 2)
  • Ramus, F. (2015). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Workshop Reading in the Forest, Kaiserslautern, Germany, 25-28/10/2015.
  • Karbalai, N., Czamara, D., Pütz, B., Wolf, C., Kam-Thong, T., Gialluisi, A., Malik, R., Ramus, F., . . . Müller-Myhsok, B. (2015). Identification of genetic interactions involved in dyslexia pathogenesis. Poster presented at the American Society of Human Genetics Annual Meeting, Baltimore, 6-10/10/2015.
  • Ramus, F. (2015). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. National Key Laboratory of Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, China, 20/04/2015.
  • Ramus, F. (2015). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Connex seminar, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 11/02/2015.
  • Ramus, F. (2015). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Seminar of the Centre for Educational Neuroscience, Institute of Education, London, 7/01/2015.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Neural Basis of Dyslexia. Keynote speaker, 3rd International Colloquium on Reading: Reading disorders, Lisbon, 4-5/12/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Neuroanatomical and language variation at the individual level. Workshop on Language evolution and diversity, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 30-31/10/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Visual and phonological aspects of dyslexia. Symposium Visuelle Rehabilitation bei Kindern, Bern, Switzerland, 17/10/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Université de Genève, 30/09/2014.
  • Ramus, F. & Castro, S. L. (2014) O que sabemos sobre o aprendizado da leitura e da escrita? VII Seminário Internacional « Como saber se o aluno foi alfabetizado? », Instituto Alfa e Beto, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 21/08/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Neural bases of dyslexia. The Second World Dyslexia Forum - Public Policies: Opening Channels to Early Identification and Best Literacy Practices, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 18-20/08/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Cortical oscillations and brain structure in developmental dyslexia. Centre for Advanced Research on Logic and Sensibility, Keio University, Japan, 14/07/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Keynote speaker, 14th Annual Conference of the Japanese Dyslexia Research Association, Tokyo, Japan 12-13/07/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan, 11/07/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Virtues and limits of the dyslexia construct. 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Paris, 8-13/07/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Imaging language dysfunction in children. Joint Congress of European Neurology, Istanbul, 31/05-3/06/2014.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Prédicteurs des capacités de lecture et de la dyslexie développementale à travers 6 langues européennes. Journée Scientifique La dyslexie à l’Université, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-neuve, Belgique, 5/12/2013.
  • Hippolyte, L., Maillard-Wermelinger, A., Siffredi, V., Martin, S., Schneider, L., Munsch, S., Ramus, F., Draganski, B., Reymond, A., Beckmann, J. S., Jacquemont, S. (2013). Neuropsychological profile in carriers of the 600kb 16p11.2 microdeletion. Poster presented at the Journée Romande de Neuropsychologie, Lausanne, 14/11/2013.
  • Roux, P., Forgeot d’Arc, B., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). Is the Theory of Mind deficit in schizophrenia explained by an impaired attention toward faces? Paper presented at the 4th European Conference on Schizophrenia Research, Berlin, 26-28/09/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Keynote speaker, 4th All European Conference of the European Dyslexia Association, Växjö, Sweden, 20-22/09/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Eyetracking investigations of social cognition in schizophrenia. CCD Seminar series, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 9/08/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). The nature of phonological deficits in developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment. Colloquium of MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, Australia, 7/08/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). What phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia? MURDR seminar, CCD, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 6/08/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Cortical oscillations and brain structure in developmental dyslexia. Colloquium of MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, Australia, 5/08/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Language in developmental and acquired disorders: future directions. Royal Society satellite meeting, Chicheley, UK, 12-13/06/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Genes, brain, and cognition. Keynote speaker, 3rd Conference of the Hellenic Cognitive Science Society, Athens, Greece, 6-7/06/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Predictors of reading and spelling ability and of developmental dyslexia across European orthographies. 3rd Conference of the Hellenic Cognitive Science Society, Athens, Greece, 6-7/06/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). The neural and genetic bases of dyslexia. Keynote speaker, International Workshop on Reading and Developmental Dyslexia Part 2 – From theory to practice, San Sebastian, Spain, 1/06/2013.
  • Ramus, F. & Wimmer, H. (2013). Results and non-results in the neuroimaging of dyslexia (debate). International Workshop on Reading and Developmental Dyslexia Part 1 – Theoretical perspectives, San Sebastian, Spain, 30-31/05/2013.
  • Roux, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). An eyetracking investigation of intentional motion perception in schizophrenia. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, 13-16/04/2013.
  • Jednoróg, K., Marchewka, A., Gawron, N., Altarelli, I., Ramus, F., & Heim, S. (2013). Multisite voxel based morphometry study of reading accuracy in control and dyslexic children. Poster presented at the Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, Oxford, UK, 11-13/04/2013.
  • Zhao, J. J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Altarelli, I., Dubois, J., & Ramus, F. (2013). Dissection of the arcuate fasciculus in dyslexic and control children. Poster presented at the Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, UK, 11-13/04/2013.
  • Altarelli, I., Leroy, F., Galaburda, A. M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2013). Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: revisiting an old question. Poster presented at the Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, Oxford, UK, 11-13/04/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2013). Cortical Oscillations and Phonology in Dyslexia. Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, Oxford, 11-13/04/2013.
  • Roux, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). An eyetracking investigation of intentional motion perception in schizophrenia. Paper presented at the Symposium on Cognitive disorders and remediation in schizophrenia and other mental diseases, Strasbourg, 18-20/03/2013.
  • Ramus, F., Marshall, C. R., Rosen, S., & van der Lely, H. K. J. (2013). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, London, 3-4/01/2013.
  • Ramus, F. (2012). Developmental dyslexia: from genes to brain to cognition. XXIème Congresso Nazionale AIRIPA, Bari, Italie, 12-13/10/2012.
  • Ramus, F. (2012). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Brainglot seminar, 21/09/2012, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelone.
  • Lehongre, K., Morillon, B., Ramus, F., & Giraud, A. L. (2012). Auditory sampling in dyslexia: a combined EEG/fMRI study. Poster presented at the 18th International Conference on Biomagnetism, Paris, 26-30/08/2012.
  • Ramus, F. (2012). Cognitive, neural and genetic bases of developmental dyslexia. II Congresso Internacional Transdisciplinar sobre a criança e o adolescente
  • A Linguagem, o Corpo e a Escrita, Santa Cruz de Cabralia, Brazil, 25-28/07/2012.
  • Forgeot d'Arc, B., Moukawane, S., Delorme, R., Zalla, T., Amsellem, F., Letellier, L., & Ramus, F. (2012). Social Cognition Development from School-Age to Adulthood. Poster presented at Innovative Research in Autism, 30/05-1/06/2012, Tours.
  • Ramus, F. (2012). Bases cognitives, cérébrales et génétiques de la dyslexie développementale. Colloque Le cerveau dans tous ses états – Neurosciences, sciences cognitives et pédagogie, Namur, Belgique, 14-16/05/2012.
  • Ramus, F., & Forgeot d'Arc, B. (2012). Spex: A computerized battery to routinely evaluate perception, social cognition and executive function in clinical populations. Workshop « Social neurosciences and schizophrenia: from fundamental research to clinical application », Versailles, 3/05/2012.
  • Ramus, F. (2012). Recent advances in dyslexia research: in search of underlying biological and cognitive deficits. Seminar of the Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 11/04/2012.
  • Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2012). Anatomical correlates of literacy in normal and dyslexic populations. Paper presented at the Thirtieth European Workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology: An interdisciplinary approach, Bressanone, 22-27/01/2012.
  • Ramus, F. (2011). What genetics tells us (or not) about language. Neuroscience, Psychology and Philosophy Workshop, Birkbeck College, London, 10/10/2011.
  • Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., Pressnitzer, D., & Giraud, A. L. (2011). Altered cortical entrainment to fast acoustic modulations reflect phonological and working memory deficit in dyslexia. Paper presented at the 17th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Donostia - San Sebastian, 29/09-2/10/2011.
  • Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., & Giraud, A. L. (2011, 25-29/09/11). Auditory cortex entrainment to syllabic rate in control and dyslexic individuals. Poster presented at the XI International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience, Palma, Mallorca.
  • Ramus, F. (2011). Genetics and neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. ENP Days, Paris, 7-9/09/2011.
  • Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2011). Anatomical correlates of literacy in normal and dyslexic populations. Poster presented at the Human Brain Mapping, Québec, 26-30/06/2011.
  • Jednorog, K., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2011). Brain anatomy of children socioeconomic status. Poster presented at the Human Brain Mapping, Québec, 26-30/06/2011.
  • Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., Pressnitzer, D., & Giraud, A. L. (2011). Altered cortical synchronization to auditory stimuli in dyslexia. Paper presented at the British Dyslexia Association International Conference, Harrogate, UK, 2-4/06/2011.
  • Ramus, F., Iannuzzi, S., Valdois, S., & Genedys consortium. (2011). Phonological vs. visual deficits in developmental dyslexia : Insights from a population of French children. Paper presented at the British Dyslexia Association International Conference, Harrogate, UK, 2-4/06/2011.
  • Forgeot d'Arc, B., Chevallier, C., Grèzes, J., & Ramus, F. (2011). Belief attribution despite heavy verbal interference in autism. Poster presented at the IMFAR, San Diego, 12-14/05/2011.
  • Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2011). Cortical thickness differences between dyslexic and normal reading children in ventral occipito-temporal regions. Poster presented at Wiring the Brain: Making Connections, Powerscourt, Co Wicklow Ireland, 12-15/04/2011.
  • Ramus, F. (2011). Predictors of dyslexia and reading ability, in French and in 5 other languages. Facoltà di Psicologia, U. di Milano Bicocca, 7/02/2011.
  • Ramus, F. (2011). Predictors of reading ability and developmental dyslexia in French and across six European languages. Neuroscience and Education Workshop, Sevilla, 14-15/01/2011.
  • Ramus, F., Iannuzzi, S., Valdois, S., & Genedys consortium. (2011). Phonological vs. visual deficits in developmental dyslexia : Insights from a population of French children. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, London, 6-7/01/2011.
  • Ramus, F. (2010). Predictors of reading ability and developmental dyslexia in French and across six European languages. Second France-Israel symposium
  • on mid-level audition, Jerusalem, 4-5/10/2010.
  • Landerl, K., Ramus, F., & Neurodys consortium. (2010). Dyslexia in six different orthographies: Associations with phonological awareness, phonological working memory and naming speed. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Berlin, 7-10/07/2010.
  • Minagawa-Kawai, Y., van der Lely, H. K. J., Ramus, F., Sato, Y., Mazuka, R., & Dupoux, E. (2010). Optical brain imaging reveals auditory general and language specific processing in early infant development. Child Language Seminar, City University London, 24-25 June 2010.
  • Lehongre, K., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., Pressnitzer, D., Ramus, F., & Giraud, A. L. (2010). Alteration of speech segmentation mechanisms in dyslexia. Poster presented at Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, 6-10/06/10.
  • Ramus, F. (2010). The phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. World Dyslexia Forum, UNESCO, Paris, 3-5/02/2010. (in French)
Projects

Cortical oscillations and auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

PI: Franck Ramus

Funding: Fondation pour l'Audition

Period: 2017-2020

 

Developmental dyslexia is a specific and significant impairment in the development of reading skills that is not solely accounted for by mental age, visual acuity problems, or inadequate schooling. It is well established that dyslexic children have difficulties processing and manipulating speech sounds. However, whether this is grounded in a basic auditory processing deficit remains contentious. A new hypothesis has recently emerged, postulating a disruption of auditory cortical oscillations in dyslexia, at certain frequency bands crucial to speech processing. However there are diverging hypotheses concerning the specific bands that would be disrupted in dyslexia, and the evidence so far seems contradictory. The general aim of this project is twofold: a fundamental aim is to understand the role of auditory cortical oscillations at different frequency-bands in the processing of sounds and in particular in the processing of speech. A more clinical aim is to understand in what respect auditory cortical oscillations deviate in individuals with developmental dyslexia, and how these deviations impact speech processing and phonological skills relevant to reading acquisition. For this purpose, we will use magnetoencephalography in order to analyse the responses of the auditory cortex of dyslexic and control adult participants to amplitude modulated noise at relevant frequency bands, and to forward and backward speech. We will also use a whole battery of auditory psychophysical tests in order to investigate the relationship between auditory cortical oscillations and various aspects of auditory processing. This project therefore has the potential to illuminate the neurophysiology of auditory and speech perception, and the neural and cognitive basis of developmental dyslexia.

 

Determinants of children’s psychological development and academic achievement

PI: Franck Ramus

Funding: Agence Nationale de la Recherche

Period: 2013-2017

Why do different children display such different abilities for school activities, with some developing learning disabilities ? Why do some develop harmoniously, while others suffer from psychological disorders? What are the factors involved, during pregnancy, at birth, in nutrition, in the familial and in the external environment? The Dyseden project aims to establish the role of some of these environmental factors.

 

Children’s cognitive and psychological development : a major societal issue

 

Childhood learning disorders (dyslexia, dysorthography, dyscalculia) and psychological disorders (conduct disorders, emotional disorders, pervasive developmental disorders…) engender enormous social costs across the entire life span. It is therefore of utmost importance to understand the factors that increase the susceptibility to these disorders, and to identify those on which an intervention may be possible. Factors affecting the development of learning and psychological disorders in children form a complicated network where genes, environment, culture, life events, and psychosocial factors are in dynamic interaction with one another.  The Dyseden project focuses on social determinants of learning and psychological disorders. It capitalises on an exceptional dataset already collected by the EDEN epidemiological project (http://eden.vjf.inserm.fr/index.php/en/) on about 1500 children followed from gestation to the age of 8 years. Dyseden follows up those children at 11-12 years old and tests them on their scholastic achievements and learning abilities, as well as collects information relative to their psychological health and disorders. Together with all the data already collected on the social and biological factors relative to these children, as well as the data relative to their earlier stages of their development, this new step promises to provide new insights into the determinants of learning abilities and disorders, and psychological health and disorders.

 

An epidemiological approach of cognitive and psychological development

All families included in the EDEN project and having agreed to continue to participate have been contacted for a new participation phase when the child is 11-12 years old. This phase takes the form of tests and questionnaires that participants take in their home on their personal computer. A dedicated software to be downloaded contains 20 tests presented as games and 3 questionnaires for the child. Parents have 6 questionnaires to fill in on a website.

 

The test battery includes both general tests of scholastic achievement and more specific cognitive tests necessary for the diagnosis of specific learning disorders. All tests are implemented on a computer interface, with instructions presented in both written and spoken form simultaneously, stimuli presented on screen or through headphones, and responses taken on keyboard. The only exception are tests requiring a verbal output (reading aloud and phonological tests), for which stimuli are presented on screen and verbal output is recorded over the phone on a vocal server. Behaviour and psychopathology are assessed through questionnaires answered by one parent, on a web interface.

 

Results

More than 1200 families participating in EDEN have been contacted. About half of them agreed to further participate, and in the end 539 parental questionnaires have been collected, and 389 children have completed the entire test battery. Data collection went on until the very last of the contract. Data analysis will be undertaken in the next three years (2017-2020).

 

In parallel, the EDEN database has been thoroughly verified, cleaned, and updated in view of the addition of the new data. New analyses have been carried out on data collected up to 5-6 years, and have given rise to several publications.

 

Scientific production

Amongst the 8 publications arising from the project so far, we have for instance shown that language difficulties at 3 years of age are a risk factor for the development of hyperactivity/inattention symptoms at 5 years, whereas the reverse relationship does not hold. Our results are consistent with the idea that language abilities provide children with means to self-regulate their behaviour (Peyre et coll., 2016, BMC Psychiatry).

Another of our studies on the early predictors of cognitive development has been highlighted in a news report: https://www.gynger.fr/comment-lenvironnement-impacte-lintelligence-de-lenfant/

 

Factual information

DysEden is a fundamental research project coordinated by CNRS (Franck Ramus), in collaboration with Inserm and the EDEN cohort (Barbara Heude). The project started in March 2013 and lasted for 4 years. It was funded by a 263 000€ grant from ANR, for a total estimated cost of 952 000€.

 

The dyslexic brain

PI: Franck Ramus

Funding: Agence Nationale de la Recherche

Period: 2012-2015

 

Developmental dyslexia : a major societal issue.

 

Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disorder affecting about 3 to 7% of the population, and defined as a specific deficit in reading acquisition that cannot be accounted for by low intelligence, poor educational opportunities, or obvious sensory or neurological damage. Previous research has shown that individuals with dyslexia have specific cognitive deficits, with a brain basis and a genetic contribution. The present project aims to provide important contributions to our understanding of dyslexia at the cognitive, brain and genetic levels, and furthermore to help us understand the mechanisms through which genes influence brain development and structure, in such a way as to produce cognitive deficits that impair reading acquisition. It does so by using the methods of psychophysics, magnetoencephalography, ultra-high magnetic field MRI and advanced genome sequencing techniques.

 

Cutting edge methods in psychophysics, brain imaging and genetics.

 

At the cognitive level, our investigations focus on auditory attention and short-term memory, and on how deficits at this level could underlie the difficulties with speech sounds (the phonological deficit) encountered by most dyslexic individuals.

At the brain level, we use magneto-encephalography to investigate to what extent the auditory cortex of dyslexic individuals responds differently to simple sounds, and how this relates to deficits at the cognitive level. We also use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the underlying brain structural differences. In particular, we use high magnetic field MRI and sophisticated acquisition and analysis methods to image the dyslexic brain in far greater details than has been possible before. This allows us to test the hypothesis that there are disruptions of neuronal migration in the brains of dyslexic people.

At the genetic level, we use all the most up-to-date methods of molecular genetics to search the genome of individuals with dyslexia and identify genetic variants that may induce a susceptibility to dyslexia. We search for both common polymorphisms by using DNA chips and rare mutations by sequencing large portions of the genome of 150 participants. Finally, we will also investigate the links between the identified genetic variants and the structural and functional brain differences observed, thereby bridging, gene, brain and behaviour.

 

Results

At the cognitive level, we have shown that adult dyslexic participants are able to implicitly memorise arbitrary complex noises, as well as a control population. This is one more piece of evidence against theories of dyslexia postulating low-level auditory deficits.

At the brain level, we have shown that the cortical thickness of the brain region supporting visual word forms is lower in dyslexic than in control girls. This result is not observed in boys. This has been replicated in two independent populations, as well as compared to a reading-level matched control group, suggesting that this difference is not entirely due to reduced or altered reading experience, but might be a causal factor in the etiology of dyslexia.

We have also confirmed that dyslexic boys show a diminished or reversed asymmetry of the planum temporale compared to control boys. This result is not observed in girls. This confirms that dyslexic boys’ auditory cortex is organised differently from controls’.

Finally, we have found, in both dyslexic boys and girls, differences in the asymmetry of two white matter tracts that connect cortical regions involved in reading. This result may help understand why certain brain regions seem to communicate less well with each other in dyslexia.

 

 

At the end of the contract, the project has already given rise to 7 articles international scientific journals, including in some of the best journals in neuroscience (J. of Neuroscience, Human Brain Mapping, Cortex). The results have also been divulgated in numerous national and international conferences, as well as in popular science outlets and events.