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Franck Ramus

Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique

Faculty
Poste
Senior Research Scientist (CNRS), Adjunct Professor (ENS)

Pavillon Jardin
29 rue d'Ulm
75005 Paris, FRANCE

Laboratory
LSCP
Team
Cognitive development and pathology
Office
Ground floor, office 9
Tel
+ 33 (0)1 44 32 26 19
Selected publications
International Journal article  

Couvignou, M., Peretz, I. & Ramus, F. (2019 ). Comorbidity and cognitive overlap between developmental dyslexia and congenital amusia. Cognitive neuropsychology, 1-17. doi:10.1080/02643294.2019.1578205

International Journal article  

Gialluisi, A., Andlauer, T., Mirza-Schreiber, N., Moll, K., Becker, J., Hoffmann, P., Ludwig, K., Czamara, D., St Pourcain, B., Brandler, W., Honbolygó, F., Tóth, D., Csépe, V., Huguet, G., Morris, A., Hulslander, J., Willcutt, E., Defries, J., Olson, R., Smith, S., Pennington, B., Vaessen, A., Maurer, U., Lyytinen, H., Peyrard-Janvid, M., Leppänen, P., Brandeis, D., Bonte, M., Stein, J., Talcott, J., Fauchereau, F., Wilcke, A., Francks, C., Bourgeron, T., Monaco, A., Ramus, F., Landerl, K., Kere, J., Scerri, T., Paracchini, S., Fisher, S., Schumacher, J., Nöthen, M., Müller-Myhsok, B. & Schulte-Körne, G. (2019). Genome-wide association scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia. Translational psychiatry, 9(1), 77. doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0402-0

International Journal article  

Lou, C., Duan, X., Altarelli, I., Sweeney, J., Ramus, F. & Zhao, J. (2019). White matter network connectivity deficits in developmental dyslexia. Human brain mapping, 40(2), 505-516. doi:10.1002/hbm.24390

International Journal article  

Peyre, H., Hoertel, N., Bernard, J., Rouffignac, C., Forhan, A., Taine, M., Heude, B., Ramus, F. & Eden Mother–child Cohort Study, G. (2019). Sex differences in psychomotor development during the preschool period: A longitudinal study of the effects of environmental factors and of emotional, behavioral, and social functioning. Journal of experimental child psychology, 178, 369-384. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2018.09.002

International Journal article  

Guez, A., Peyre, H., Le Cam, M., Gauvrit, N. & Ramus, F. (2018). Are high-IQ students more at risk of school failure? Intelligence, 71, 32–40. doi:10.1016/j.intell.2018.09.003

Presentation

I am a CNRS senior research scientist and adjunct professor at the Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Institute of Cognitive Studies, Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris, within which I head the "Cognitive development and pathology" team.

My research bears on the development of language and social cognition in children, its disorders (developmental dyslexia, specific language impairment, autism), its cognitive and neural bases and its genetic and environmental determinants.

CV

Employment

 
since 2014
Co-director of the Research Master in Cognitive Science (ENS, EHESS, Université Paris-Descartes).
Adjunct professor at Ecole Normale Supérieure.
since 2011
Directeur de recherches (senior research scientist) at CNRS.
since 2002
Chargé de recherches (junior research scientist) at CNRS, Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique (UMR 8554). 
2000-2001
Marie Curie Fellow at Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London. 
Project entitled "Functional and neurological characterisation of developmental dyslexia", under the supervision of Uta Frith.
 
Team's current news

Raphaël MIZZI obtained a tenure position as "Maitre de conférences" at Aix-Marseille University.

Congratulations Raphaël !

Ongoing Projects

Page under construction

Past Research

 

Period 2013-2018 

  

The general theme that interests me and unifies the different branches of my research is that of the brain and cognitive development of the child. Within this theme I am particularly interested in the acquisition of language, as well as the development of other high-level cognitive functions. The questions that lie at the heart of my research are: What are the cognitive predispositions that underlie the development of the child? How are these predispositions implemented in the infant's brain? How does the human genome build a brain with such predispositions? How do genetic and environmental influences interact to constrain the development of cognitive functions? 

I  approached language acquisition from the pathological side by studying developmental dyslexia, which I see as  a neuropsychological model of phonological acquisition. I naturally went on to study specific language impairment. I have also begun to investigate  the neural and the genetic basis of dyslexia. 

More recently I  broadened my interests to  social cognition, as well as to other neurodevelopmental disorders (including autism and schizophrenia) using epidemiological tools insofar as they can inform us on the genetic and neural basis of cognitive development.  

 

1. Exploring the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment 

2. Genetic, neurological and cognitive characterisation of developmental language disorders : the Genedys project 

3. Dysbrain Project : Neuroanatomy of dyslexia 

4. Cognitif development and litteracy acquisition in french and chinese infants (CROSSLINGDYS)  

5. Cerebral bases of voice perception in dyslexic adults 

6. Social cognition and disabilities 

7. Genetic and environmental basis of cognitive development 


1. Exploring the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment 

 

 

A long-standing project aims to better understand the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. This project was supported by funding from the Dysbrain project (ANR), which explicitly includes a fairly extensive cognitive investigation component in the auditory and phonological field. 

In general, our data support the idea that phonological representations of dyslexic people are not fundamentally degraded, but that their access to certain demanding cognitive tasks is compromised. With my collaborators Trevor Agus and Daniel Pressnitzer, I conducted a study showing that dyslexic adults memorize sounds as well as controls, contrary to the predictions of a number of hypotheses about hearing and phonological deficits in dyslexia (Agus, Carrión Castillo, Pressnitzer, & Ramus, 2014). 

My research on phonological processing in dyslexia is paralleled by similar work on children with specific language impairment, in collaboration with Heather van der Lely, Chloe Marshall and Stuart Rosen (UCL) and with funding from the ESRC. 

 

  • Agus, T. R., Carrión Castillo, A., Pressnitzer, D., & Ramus, F. (2014). Perceptual learning of acoustic noise by dyslexic individuals. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, 57, 1069-1077.  
  • Ramus, F., Marshall, C. R., Rosen, S., & van der Lely, H. K. J. (2013). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Brain, 136(2), 630-645.  
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Should there really be a “Dyslexia debate”? Brain, 137, 3371-3374. 
  • Ramus, F. (2014). Neuroimaging sheds new light on the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18, 274-275.  
  • Szenkovits, G., Darma, Q., Darcy, I., & Ramus, F. (2016). Exploring dyslexics’ phonological deficit II: phonological grammar. First Language, 36(3), 316–337. 

 

2. Genetic, neurological and cognitive characterisation of developmental language disorders : the Genedys project 

 

 

Together with geneticist Thomas Bourgeron at Pasteur Institute and many collaborators all over France, I set up the Genedys project, which  explores the genetic bases of developmental language disorders (dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment, SLI), in relation to both cognitive and neuroanatomical phenotypes. It is based on the participation of dyslexic, SLI and control children, aged 8 to 12, and their family members (in the case of multiplex families). Children undergo a complete behavioural test battery (around 3 hours of tests covering all the main aspects of general cognitive functioning, oral and written language), donate either a blood or a saliva sample for DNA extraction, and a subset of them undergo a neuroanatomical MRI scan, in order to define a neural phenotype for those disorders. 

The Genedys project also became part of the European project  Neurodys, led by Gerd Schulte-Körne in Munich, and including many other collaborators. Within Neurodys, around 1500 dyslexic and 1500 control children from 9 countries are behaviourally tested on a common test battery (a subset of the Genedys battery) and donate a DNA sample.  

In this latest study, based on hierarchical logistic regression analyzes, we confirm that phonological awareness and fast naming are the two main predictors of dyslexia. On the other hand, we show that these two variables have about the same relative weight in the prediction at all levels of orthographic complexity. On the other hand, their predictive power (and that of the complete model) increases with orthographic complexity. Thus, in spelling languages such as Finnish and Hungarian, a standard deviation deficit in phonological awareness multiplies the risk of dyslexia by 2, but in the most complex spelling languages such as English and French it multiplies it by 4. In the spelling languages, other (perhaps visual) factors are obviously at work, which have not been measured in this study. 

The global analysis of cognitive data shows the quasi-universality of the phonological deficit among dyslexic children. On the other hand, we do not observe any real case of visual stress and a limited impact of the visual-attention span reduction. In addition, visuo-attentional disorders always coexist with a phonological deficit, unlike the independence reported by Bosse, Tainturier and Valdois (2007). Overall our results challenge these alternative theories of dyslexia (Saksida et al., 2016). 

In addition, we contributed French genetic data to an international consortium (from but not limited to Neurodys), to the first genome-wide analysis of dyslexia (Giallusi et al., 2019). 

Genetic data were also partially analyzed but did not replicate known associations (Becker et al., 2014).A later collaboration with Anne-Lise Giraud and Katia Lehongre attempts to investigate cortical oscillations supporting auditory sampling of speech in dyslexia. 

These efforts were continued in the Dysbrain project, which gathered very high resolution images at the 7 Tesla MRI, and MEG responses to auditory stimuli. 

 

Cognitive aspects of developmental dyslexia 

  • Landerl, K.*, Ramus, F.*, Moll, K., Lyytinen, H., Leppänen, P. H. T., Lohvansuu, K., . . . Schulte-Körne, G. (2013). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(6), 686-694. *equal contributors  
  • Moll, K., Ramus, F., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., . . . Landerl, K. (2014). Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction, 29, 65-77. 
  • Saksida, A., Iannuzzi, S., Bogliotti, C., Chaix, Y., Démonet, J. F., Bricout, L., . . . Ramus, F. (2016). Phonological skills, visual attention span, and visual stress in developmental dyslexia: insights from a population of French children. Developmental Psychology, 52(10), 1503–1516. 

Cortical oscillations in developmental dyslexia 

  • Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., & Giraud, A. L. (2011). Altered low-gamma sampling in auditory cortex accounts for the three main facets of dyslexia. Neuron, 72(6), 1080-1090.  
  • Giraud, A. L., & Ramus, F. (2013). Neurogenetics and auditory processing in developmental dyslexia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(1), 37-42.  
  • Lehongre, K., Morillon, B., Giraud, A. L., & Ramus, F. (2013). Impaired auditory sampling in dyslexia: Further evidence from combined fMRI and EEG. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 454. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00454  

Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia 

  • Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Iannuzzi, S., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Ramus, F., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2013). A functionally guided approach to the morphometry of occipito-temporal regions in developmental dyslexia: evidence for differential effects in boys and girls. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(27), 11296-11301. 
  • Altarelli, I., Leroy, F., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., . . . Ramus, F. (2014). Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: revisiting an old question. Human Brain Mapping, 35, 5717-5735.  
  • Jednoróg, K., Marchewka, A., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., van Ermingen-Marbach, M., Grande, M., Grabowska, A., Heim, S., & Ramus, F. (2015). How reliable are grey matter disruptions in specific reading disability across multiple countries and languages? Insights from a large-scale voxel-based morphometry study. Human Brain Mapping, 36(5), 1741-1754. 
  • Płoński, P., Gradkowski, W., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Van Ermingen-Marbach, M., Grande, M., ..., Ramus, F., & Jednoróg, K. (2017). Multi-parameter machine learning approach to the neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping, 38(2), 900‑908. 
  • Zhao, J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Altarelli, I., Dubois, J., & Ramus, F. (2016). Altered hemispheric lateralization of white matter tracts in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from spherical deconvolution tractography. Cortex, 76, 51-62. 

Genetic basis of developmental dyslexia 

  • Galaburda, A. M., LoTurco, J., Ramus, F., Fitch, R. H., & Rosen, G. D. (2006). From genes to behavior in developmental dyslexia. Nature Neuroscience, 9(10), 1213-1217.  
  • Ramus, F. (2006). Genes, brain, and cognition: A roadmap for the cognitive scientist. Cognition, 101(2), 247-269. (Introduction to a Cognition Special Issue) 
  • Ramus, F., & Fisher, S. E. (2009). Genetics of language. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The Cognitive Neurosciences IV (pp. 855-871). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 
  • Becker, J., Czamara, D., Scerri, T. S., Ramus, F., Csépe, V., Talcott, J. B., . . . Schumacher, J. (2014). Genetic analysis of dyslexia candidate genes in the European cross-linguistic NeuroDys cohort. European Journal of Human Genetics, 22, 675-680. 
  • Gialluisi, A., Andlauer, T. F., Mirza-Schreiber, N., Moll, K., Becker, J., Hoffmann, P., … Schulte-Körne, G. (2019). Genome Wide Association Scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia. Translational psychiatry, 9(1), 77. doi:10.1038/s41398-019-0402-0

 

3. Dysbrain Project : Neuroanatomy of dyslexia

 

 

The work of analyzing neuroanatomical T1 images of dyslexic children and witnesses has been a very important part of the work done by my team in recent years, involving Irene Altarelli (PhD student, 2009-2013), Katarzyna Jednorog (postdoctoral 2010-2011, collaborator in Warsaw since), Jingjing Zhao (postdoctoral fellow, 2012-2014, collaborator in Xi'an), Lou Scotto di Covella (PhD student, 2013-2017) under my supervision and with the help of collaborators (Ghislaine Dehaene, Michel Thiebaut from Schotten). These analyzes focus on the 64 brains scanned during the Genedys project, combining occasionally with additional images acquired by G. Dehaene-Lambertz as well as international collaborators (K. Jednorog, S. Heim). 

Methods were the folllowing: voxel-based morphometry (VBM), surface based  morphometry (SBM), morphometry of targeted regions, in particular the temporal planum and the Heschl gyrus; morphometry of the furrows; and multi-parametric classification algorithms.  

We conclude from our analyzes that the abnormal functional development of the visual word-form area in dyslexic children is associated with a smaller thickness of cortex, and that this can not be attributed exclusively to the least experience of these children in reading (Altarelli et al., 2013). 

Our results are more generally consistent with the idea that the brain disturbances underlying dyslexia are probably partly different between boys and girls, joining earlier conjectures (Humphreys, Kaufmann, & Galaburda, 1990, Ramus, 2006) as well as more recent studies (Evans, Flowers, Napoliello, & Eden, 2013). We develop this point of view in a book chapter (Ramus et al., 2017). 

The initial analysis of VBM on the French data proving to be unconvincing, we have changed scale, thanks to the work of our ex-postdoctoral fellow K. Jednorog who gathered the data of several countries: 84 French children (from Genedys as well as a study by G. Dehaene-Lambertz), as well as 71 German and 81 Polish. We suggest that the previously published results of VBM on dyslexia are probably false positives. We hope that this demonstration will help cognitive neuroscientists to raise their methodological standards, notably by increasing the numbers, and by systematically carrying out replication studies, as is now the case in genetics in genome-whole studies (Ramus et al., 2018). 

Among the other ways to analyze brain anatomy on the basis of T1 images, our doctoral student Lou Scotto di Covella performed a morphometric analysis of grooves (Scotto di Covella, submitted), while K. Jednorog conducted an analysis, multiparametric classification being written (Płoński et al., 2017). These two analyzes were conducted on 236 French, Polish and German brains. 

Finally, we have also begun to exploit the dissemination data, thanks to our post-doctoral fellow Jingjing Zhao and our collaborators Michel Thiebaut of Schotten and Jessica Dubois. We have shown that two bundles appear to have a different pattern of symmetry in dyslexic children: the lower occipito-frontal bundle, which has a less pronounced asymmetry to the left in the dyslexic child than in the control, and the second bundle segment superior longitudinal, which has a more pronounced asymmetry to the right in the dyslexic child. We now plan to continue with a thorough analysis of the corpus callosum in dyslexia (Zhao et al. 2016 ; Lou et al. 2019). 

 

  • Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Iannuzzi, S., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Ramus, F., & Dehaene-Lambertz, G. (2013). A functionally guided approach to the morphometry of occipito-temporal regions in developmental dyslexia: evidence for differential effects in boys and girls. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33(27), 11296-11301. 
  • Altarelli, I., Leroy, F., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., . . . Ramus, F. (2014). Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: revisiting an old question. Human Brain Mapping, 35, 5717-5735.  
  • Jednoróg, K., Marchewka, A., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., van Ermingen-Marbach, M., Grande, M., Grabowska, A., Heim, S., & Ramus, F. (2015). How reliable are grey matter disruptions in specific reading disability across multiple countries and languages? Insights from a large-scale voxel-based morphometry study. Human Brain Mapping, 36(5), 1741-1754. 
  • Lou, C., Duan, X., Altarelli, I., Sweeney, J. A., Ramus, F., & Zhao, J. (2019). White matter network connectivity deficits in developmental dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping, 40(2), 505-516. doi:10.1002/hbm.24390
  • Płoński, P., Gradkowski, W., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Van Ermingen-Marbach, M., Grande, M., .., Ramus, F., & Jednoróg, K. (2017). Multi-parameter machine learning approach to the neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping, 38(2), 900908. 
  • Ramus, F., Altarelli, I., Jednoróg, K., Zhao, J., & Scotto di Covella, L. (2017). Brain asymmetries and sex differences in developmental dyslexia. In A. M. Galaburda, N. Gaab, F. Hoeft, & P. McCardle (Éd.), Dyslexia and Neuroscience: The Geschwind-Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later (p. 7886). Baltimore, MD: Brookes. 
  • Ramus, F., Altarelli, I., Jednoróg, K., Zhao, J., & Scotto di Covella, L. (2018). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: Pitfalls and promise. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 84 (Supplement C), 434452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.08.001 
  • Scotto di Covella, L., Leroy, F., Cauvet, E., Girard, F., Couvignou, M., Caron-Guyon, J., … Ramus, F. (submitted). Morphometry of three sulci in developmental dyslexia. Human Brain Mapping. 
  • Zhao, J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Altarelli, I., Dubois, J., & Ramus, F. (2016). Altered hemispheric lateralization of white matter tracts in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from spherical deconvolution tractography. Cortex, 76, 51–62.  

 

4. Cognitif development and litteracy acquisition in french and chinese infants (CROSSLINGDYS) 

 

 

My colleagues at Beijing Normal University (BNU) (PI: Hua Shu) followed more than 300 children from the age of 3 to 14, collecting many interesting measurements over the years, especially in connection with learning to read. The data from this cohort can make it possible to ask the following questions in particular: 1) What are the early (cognitive, environmental) predictors of later acquisitions in the field of oral and written language? 2) What are the cerebral bases of these acquisitions? 3) What are the early predictors and cerebral bases of dyslexia? 4) Comparing with our data acquired in alphabetical languages, to what extent do the answers to these questions depend on the language?  

BNU doctoral student Mengmeng Su spent a year in my team (2013-2014) thanks to funding from the China Scholarship Council, notably to train in the analysis of diffusion imaging (an MRI was passed at age 14 in 79 of these children), and to carry out various longitudinal analyzes. Hua Shu and I have obtained PRC funding between the CNRS and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which will allow us to continue to exchange and collaborate in the next 3 years. 

In a first study (Su et al., 2017), we analyzed the predictive power of early family factors and initial cognitive abilities measured at 3-5 years of age on reading skills assessed in great detail at the age of 11 years. We found on the one hand a prediction of 20 to 34% of the variance, substantial over such a long time, on the other hand that the nature of the predictors varies according to the capacity of reading measured (character recognition, fluence of reading, text comprehension, spelling). In addition, mediation analyzes show that the effect of family factors is entirely mediated by the measured early cognitive abilities. 

The following two studies exploit the MRIs obtained with these children, including diffusion imaging. The first shows that the connectivity (fractional anisotropy) of the left arched beam (long and posterior segments) is associated with different vocabulary development trajectories from 3 to 11 years (Su et al., 2017). The second shows that Chinese dyslexic children differ from controls by the connectivity of left arched (long segment) and lower longitudinal bundles (Su et al., 2018). In addition, arc beam connectivity is correlated with phonological capabilities, as in the alphabetic languages, while the lower left longitudinal beam correlates with morphological capabilities, which probably reflects a specificity of morphographic languages (Su et al., 2018).  

 

  • Su, M., Peyre, H., Song, S., McBride, C., Tardif, T., Li, H., Zhang, Y., Liang, W., Zhang, Z., Ramus, F., Shu, H. (2017). The influence of early linguistic skills and family factors on literacy acquisition in Chinese children: Follow-up from age 3 to age 11. Learning and Instruction, 49, 54–63.  
  • Su, M., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Zhao, J., Song, S., Zhou, W., Gong, G., McBride, C., Ramus, F., Shu, H. (2018) Vocabulary growth rate from preschool to school-age years is reflected in the connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus in 14-year-old children. Developmental Science, e12647.  
  • Su, M., Zhao, J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Zhou, W., Gong, G., Ramus, F., & Shu, H. (2018). Alterations in white matter pathways underlying phonological and morphological processing in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 31, 11-19. 

 

5. Cerebral bases of voice perception in dyslexic adults  

 

 

The hypothesis we are testing is that the endogenous cortical rhythms of dyslexic people may be less differentiated between the left and right auditory cortex, or that the left auditory cortex may be less receptive to gamma band oscillations than matched controls. Alternatively, dyslexics could have quite normal cortical rhythms, which would be consistent with our results obtained by psycholinguistic methods (Ramus & Szenkovits, 2008) (In collaboration with Anne-Lise Giraud and Katia Lehongre). 

After a first MEG study (Lehongre, Ramus, Villiermet, Schwarz, & Giraud, 2011), we conducted a simultaneous fMRI / EEG study (Lehongre, Morillon, Giraud, & Ramus, 2013), which confirms the anomaly left auditory cortex responses at 25-35 Hz, while showing that brain responses to other frequency bands relevant to speech (1-3 Hz and 4-7 Hz) are normal, challenging Goswami's competing theory (2011). 

These results are particularly remarkable for their strength and their adequacy with the predictions of Giraud et al. (2007). Nevertheless, their precise interpretation remains uncertain, in particular the alleged cognitive consequences, which will have to be the subject of targeted investigations (Giraud & Ramus, 2013). It was the focus of a portion of the Dysbrain project that was completed in December 2015, and will continue to be analyzed in 2017-2020 with funding from the Agir Foundation for Hearing. 

 

  • Giraud, A. L., & Ramus, F. (2013). Neurogenetics and auditory processing in developmental dyslexia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(1), 37-42.  
  • Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., & Giraud, A. L. (2011). Altered low-gamma sampling in auditory cortex accounts for the three main facets of dyslexia. Neuron, 72(6), 1080-1090.  
  • Lehongre, K., Morillon, B., Giraud, A. L., & Ramus, F. (2013). Impaired auditory sampling in dyslexia: Further evidence from combined fMRI and EEG. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 454. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00454  

 

6. Social cognition and disabilities 

 

 

With Emmanuel Dupoux and Pierre Jacob, we carried out, thanks to ANR funding for 2009-2013, the Socodev project on different aspects of the development of social cognition. 

We have studied how different states of an agent can be intuitively extracted from simple visual scenes and represented by an observer focusing on four types of representations: (1) the representation of the animacy character (the difference between inanimate objects and self-propelled animated agents); (2) the representation of the goals of an agent; (3) the representation of the beliefs of an agent and (4) the representation of the social attributes of an agent. 

Our general method has been to use nonverbal stimuli (silent animations) and to contrast explicit verbal tasks with more implicit nonverbal measures, such as eye fixations. We studied these abilities in adults, children, and their deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in schizophrenia. This work was carried out by two successive psychiatric PhD students: Baudouin Forgeot d'Arc for the initial development of the battery of tests and its application to autism, then Paul Roux for later developments and application to schizophrenia. The data collected is very rich and is analyzed and published progressively. 

 

6.1 Representation of the animacy character 

This is the most basic component of the system: the identification of agents as such, as opposed to inert objects. We are trying to get more implicit measures of animated character detection, notably using eye-tracking. 

Our animation measures of triangles Frith and Happé were validated on 17 participants (Roux, Passerieux, & Ramus, 2013) and conducted in patients with schizophrenia, which we have shown that their eye followings are normal, even though verbal descriptions of these stimuli are impoverished (Roux, Smith, Passerieux & Ramus, 2017). These findings are consistent with the idea of a normal social perception in schizophrenia and a deficit at a more explicit and metacognitive or language level. This protocol is nevertheless limited by its heterogeneity, which has led us to prefer more controlled stimuli described below. 

 

  • Roux, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). Kinematics matters: a new eye-tracking investigation of animated triangles. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (2), 229-244. 
  • Roux, P., Smith, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2016). Preserved implicit mentalizing in schizophrenia despite poor explicit performance: evidence from eye tracking. Scientific Reports, 6, 34728. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep34728 

 

6.2 Representation of the goals of an agent  

In order to go beyond the limits of triangles animations, Paul Roux has developed a new experiment based on the protocol for detecting the tracking of an agent (circle) by another of Gao et al. (2009) (tested on 40 healthy adults). The manipulated kinematic parameters satisfactorily modulate the subjects' ability to detect stalking. In addition, we have shown that simultaneous eye-tracking measurements predict the behavioral response to a large extent, allowing for a totally implicit measure of tracking detection. 

This protocol was then adapted and used on a group of 29 schizophrenic patients and 29 matched controls. The results showed a lower sensitivity to detection of stalking in patients. Eye tracking analyzes revealed that this lower sensitivity was manifested both in implicit treatment and in explicit cognitive processing. 

Finally, an important element in the detection of the goals of an agent is to decode the direction of his gaze to determine the object of his attention. The question of whether this ability to follow the eye is deficient or not in autism remains debated. This protocol was passed by 33 patients with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and 38 matched controls in age and IQ. Our results suggest a slight deficit in monitoring the direction of gaze in patients (Forgeot d'Arc et al., 2017). Nevertheless, they leave open the question of the direction of causality between this deficit and the more general disturbances of social functioning in autism. 

 

  • Forgeot d’Arc, B., Delorme, R., Zalla, T., Lefebvre, A., Amsellem, F., Moukawane, S., . . . Ramus, F. (2017). Gaze Direction Detection in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism, 21(1), 100-107.  
  • Roux, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2015). An eyetracking investigation of intentional motion perception in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 40(2), 118-125.  
  • Roux, P., Brunet-Gouet, E., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2016). Eyetracking reveals a slowdown of social context processing during intention attribution in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 41(2), E13-E21.  

 

6.3 Representation of believes 

During his thesis, Baudouin Forgeot d'Arc created a new experimental paradigm designed to test the mentalizing abilities, while avoiding the many pitfalls and limitations of the classic tasks of false belief (Sally-Ann type). 

These are animated films made with Flash software, featuring scenarios of the wrong type. The idea is that the eyes of the subjects will betray their surprise when the scenario will lead to an unexpected fall; the prediction of the fall involving the mentalizing abilities in the mentalist scenarios, but not mechanistic ones. 

In addition to a validation study of this paradigm (Forgeot d'Arc & Ramus, 2011), we used it with the same group of schizophrenic patients as before. We found that patients had lower belief-granting performance than controls, in line with an already important literature. In addition, by analyzing the fixations on different areas of interest of the scene (object that is moved or modified, face of the agent who sees or does not change), we showed that patients looked less at the face of the agent (but not the object), and that this difference in access to information made it possible to explain most of the difference in the explicit task (Roux, et al., 2014). Our results therefore suggest that either eye-tracking difficulties in schizophrenic patients or their lower interest in faces has an impact on their ability to attribute mental states to complex social situations. 

 

  • Forgeot d'Arc, B., & Ramus, F. (2011). Belief attribution despite verbal interference. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(5), 975-990.  
  • Roux, P., Forgeot d’Arc, B., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2014). Is the Theory of Mind deficit observed in visual paradigms in schizophrenia explained by an impaired attention toward gaze orientation? Schizophrenia Research, 157, 78-83.  

 

6.4 Representation of the social attributes  

Beyond the mental states of an agent, human beings commonly attribute to others (rightly or wrongly, but most often spontaneously) different social attributes (kind, sympathetic, intelligent, etc.). It is interesting to try to understand at the same time the mechanisms leading to these social judgments, and their possible deficiency in certain populations. For this purpose, B. Forgeot d'Arc has developed a task in which the participants see pairs of faces, and must decide which one looks the most "nice". Some of the stimuli are photographs of natural or synthetic faces in which the facial features associated with kindness are manipulated, presented in pairs differing in these facial features in a subtle or important way. 

The results indicate that autistic patients have judgments less consistent with the reference population in the photographs, but not on the synthetic faces, regardless of the level of difficulty (pairs differing little or much) (33 autistic individuals and 38 controls). This suggests that either the difficulties of autistic people in social judgments are not due to perceptual deficits, or they are very subtle perceptual deficits concerning indices present in natural but non-synthetic faces (Forgeot d'Arc et al., 2016). 

 

  • Forgeot d’Arc, B., Ramus, F., Lefebvre, A., Brottier, D., Zalla, T., Moukawane, S., .., Delorme, R. (2016). Atypical Social Judgment and Sensitivity to Perceptual Cues in Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 46¸ 1574-1581.  

 

7.  Genetic and environmental basis of cognitive development 

 

 

As I say in my introduction, the study of factors determining individual differences in cognitive development requires an epidemiological approach. With this in mind, the EDEN project is currently my main database. I also participate with my Chinese colleagues in similar analyzes of the data of a population of Chinese children. 

The EDEN project (http://eden.vjf.inserm.fr/index.php/fr/accueil) is an Inserm cohort of 2000 children followed since gestation in all aspects of their health. They include a lot of data on the environment of children, as well as questionnaires filled regularly by parents. It also includes a cognitive component, including a 2-year vocabulary measurement (McArthur-Bates questionnaire completed by parents), a cognitive test battery at 3 and then 5 years, and questionnaires on behavior and psychological disorders (Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire: SDQ). 

This cohort will allow us to ask a whole series of new questions on the developmental trajectories of different cognitive abilities and learning, and the interactions between genetic and environmental factors influencing them. Hugo Peyre, doctoral student and then associate researcher in my team and child psychiatrist trained in epidemiology, worked on the cognitive data acquired so far. 

 

7.1 Development and stability of language skills between 2 and 3 years 

The first analysis focused on the development of language skills between 2 and 3 years and on the stability over time of identified risk profiles at 2 years. The results show that language delays are still unstable between 2 and 3 years, in both directions (recovery of delay, and delay occurring later). Beyond the general factors influencing the development of language (sex, prenatal alcohol, breastfeeding, primiparity, gestational term, parental education, maternal stimulation), changes between 2 and 3 years are predicted particularly by the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. pregnancy, breastfeeding, parental education and the frequency of maternal stimulation (Peyre et al., 2014)(Peyre et al., 2019). 

 

7.2 Association between language difficulties and attention deficits 

Is there a cause-and-effect relationship between the two, and in this case, in which direction? We found that 3-year language skills predict some of the variance in inattention symptoms at 5 years (estimated by the SDQ), but not vice versa. Our results are therefore consistent with theories that postulate a role of language in the child's behavioral regulation and executive control (Peyre et al., 2016a). 

 

7.3 What are the environmental factors of cognitive development that produce global effects on all cognitive functions? 

Which of these are the ones that produce possibly specific or more important effects on certain functions? We found that while most factors have general effects, some have greater (if not exclusive) effects on verbal abilities. This is the case, for example, in the level of parental education, breastfeeding, but also the number of older siblings (negative effect). Our results make it possible to begin to distinguish the factors that induce positive correlations between the cognitive functions contributing to the factor g of general intelligence, and those which on the contrary induce a differentiation of cognitive functions (Peyre et al., 2016b). 

 

7.4 Are gifted children more anxious? 

Based on the IQ and behavioral symptom (SDQ) data of more than 1,000 5-year-old EDEN children, we found that the 23 that are more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (IQ> 130, "gifted" children) do not actually have more behavioral symptoms than others, challenging popular belief (Peyre et al., 2016c). It will be interesting to repeat this analysis in early adolescence when the data at 11 years old were collected, some theories assuming that it is only on arrival at the college that the "maladjustment" of gifted children to the system school is fully revealed. 

 

7.5 Is there a relationship between growth and IQ? 

We have investigated the extent to which the child's major developmental stages, as assessed by relatively brief clinical examinations at 4, 8, 12 or 24 months, predict a child's IQ measured at 5-6. years. We found that developmental milestones at 24 months (including those for language) can predict about 20% of IQ variance at 5-6 years. On the other hand, measurements at earlier ages have almost no predictive power (Peyre et al., 2017). 

 

  • Peyre, H., Bernard, J. Y., Forhan, A., Charles, M.-A., De Agostini, M., Heude, B., & Ramus, F. (2014). Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort. PeerJ, 2, e335. doi: 10.7717/peerj.335  
  • Peyre, H., Galera, C., van der Waerden, J., Hoertel, N., Bernard, J. Y., Melchior, M., & Ramus, F. (2016a). Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 380. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1091-3  
  • Peyre, H., Bernard, J. Y., Hoertel, N., Forhan, A., Charles, M.-A., De Agostini, M., … Ramus, F. (2016b). Differential effects of determinants of cognitive development on verbal and nonverbal skills at the age of 5-6 years in the EDEN mother-child cohort.  Cognitive Development, 40, 152–162. 
  • Peyre, H., Ramus, F., Melchior, M., Forhan, A., Heude, B., & Gauvrit, N. (2016c). Emotional, behavioral and social difficulties among high-IQ children during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 366-371.  
  • Peyre, H., Charkaluk, M.-L., Forhan, A., Heude, B., & Ramus, F. (2017). Do developmental milestones at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months predict IQ at 5–6 years old? Results of the EDEN mother–child cohort. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 21(2), 272-279. 
  • Peyre, H., Hoertel, N., Bernard, J., Rouffignac, C., Forhan, A., Taine, M., Heude, B., Ramus, F. & Eden Mother–child Cohort Study, G. (2019). Sex differences in psychomotor development during the preschool period: A longitudinal study of the effects of environmental factors and of emotional, behavioral and social functioning. Journal of experimental child psychology, 178, 369-384. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2018.09.002

 

Talks
  1. Ramus, F. (2020). Keynote speaker, International Congress of Psychology, Prague, 19-24/07/2020.
  2. Ramus, F. (2019). Epidemiological investigations of dyslexia in France. Invited speaker at 1st SRLD Conference, Padova, Italy, 7-8/06/2019.
  3. Latimier, A., Riegert, A., Peyre, H., Ly, S. T., Casati, R., & Ramus, F. (2019). Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing ? Poster presented at the International Convention of Psychological Science, Paris, 7-9/03/2019.
  4. Guez, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2019). Sex Differences in Academic Achievement Are Moderated By Test Type. Poster presented at the International Convention of Psychological Science, Paris,  7-9/03/2019.
  5. Ramus, F. (2018). Par quelles méthodes enseigner et remédier la lecture ? Résultats des évaluations internationales. Salon Educ, Bruxelles, 4/10/2018.
  6. Ramus, F. (2018). How to help students remember what they are taught? Lecture at Capital Normal University, Beijing, 7/06/2018.
  7. Guez, A., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2018). Early Environmental and Cognitive Predictors of Learning Abilities. Poster présenté à Life History Research Society Conference 2018, Paris, 30/05/2018.
  8. Peyre H., Albaret, J. M., Bernard, J. Y., Hoertel, N., Melchior, M., Forhan, A., Heude, B., De Agostini, M., Galéra, C., & Ramus, F. (2018). Developmental trajectories of fine motor skills during the preschool period. Présenté à Life History Research Society Conference 2018, Paris, 1/06/2018.
  9. Guez, A., Panaïotis, T., Peyre, H., & Ramus, F. (2018). Predictors of the IQ-Achievement Gap in France. Présenté à Life History Research Society Conference 2018, Paris, 30/05/2018.
  10. Ramus, F. (2018). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: pitfalls and promise. Laboratoire de cartographie fonctionnelle du cerveau, Hôpital Erasme, Bruxelles, 22/05/2018.

Archive (2010-2017)

  1. Ramus, F. (2017). Are there visual problems in certain cases of dyslexia? Keynote speaker, European Dyslexia Association Autumn Seminar, Munich, 6-8/10/2017.
  2. Ramus, F. (2017). Phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Behavior and Cognitive Neuroscience, Xi’an, China, 4/09/2017.
  3. Su, M., Zhao, J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Zhou, W., Gong, G., Ramus, F., & Shu, H. (2017, 29/06). Alterations in white matter pathways underlying phonological and morphological processing in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Poster presented at the Organization for Human Brain Mapping, Vancouver.
  4. Ramus, F. (2017). The respective roles of phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Keynote speaker, Symposium International sur la Littéracie à l’Ecole / International Symposium for Educational Literacy, Ajaccio, 26-27/06/2017.
  5. Couvignou, M., Peretz, I., & Ramus, F. (2017, 18/06). Is there a cognitive relationship between congenital amusia and developmental dyslexia? Poster presented at The Neurosciences and Music VI - Music, sound and health, Boston.
  6. Ramus, F. (2016). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: pitfalls and promises. Golden Bell lecture, Beijing Normal University, 1/12/2016.
  7. Ramus, F. (2016). Phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Seminar of Shu laboratory, Beijing Normal University, 30/11/2016.
  8. Ramus, F. (2016). Brain lateralization and sex differences in dyslexia. Invited speaker, The Dyslexia Foundation Extraordinary Brain Symposium XV: The Geschwind - Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 19-24/06/2016.
  9. Jednoróg, K., Płoński, P., Gradkowski, W., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Van Ermingen-Marbach, M., … Ramus, F., & Bogorodzki, P. (2016, June). Multi-parameter machine learning approach to the neuroanatomical basis of developmental dyslexia. Poster presented at the Dyslexia Foundation Extraordinary Brain Symposium XV: The Geschwind - Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later, St-Croix, US Virgin Islands.
  10. Altarelli, I., Dubois, J., & Ramus, F. (2016, 24/06). Relationship between cortical thickness and myelination in developmental dyslexia. Poster presented at The Dyslexia Foundation Extraordinary Brain Symposium XV: The Geschwind - Galaburda Hypothesis 30 years later, St-Croix, US Virgin Islands.
  11. Ramus, F. (2016). Keynote speaker, International Workshop on Reading and Developmental Dyslexia, Bilbao, Spain, 5-7/05/2016.
  12. Ramus, F. (2016). Neuroanatomy of dyslexia. International Symposium on Dyslexia and Dyscalculia, München, 19-20/04/2016.
  13. Saksida, A., Ramus, F., & Genedys consortium. Phonological skills, visual attention span, and visual stress in developmental dyslexia. British Dyslexia Association international conference, Oxford, 10-12/03/2016.
  14. Ramus, F. (2016). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. European Workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology, Bressanone, Italy, 25-29/01/2016.
  15. Ramus, F. (2016). Developmental dyslexia: from genes to brain to reading.Neurobiology of language and communication, FENS-Hertie Winter school, Obergurgl, Austria, 3-9/01/2016.  (part 1)  (part 2)
  16. Ramus, F. (2015). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Workshop Reading in the Forest, Kaiserslautern, Germany, 25-28/10/2015.
  17. Karbalai, N., Czamara, D., Pütz, B., Wolf, C., Kam-Thong, T., Gialluisi, A., Malik, R., Ramus, F., . . . Müller-Myhsok, B. (2015). Identification of genetic interactions involved in dyslexia pathogenesis. Poster presented at the American Society of Human Genetics Annual Meeting, Baltimore, 6-10/10/2015.
  18. Ramus, F. (2015). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. National Key Laboratory of Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, China, 20/04/2015.
  19. Ramus, F. (2015). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Connex seminar, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 11/02/2015.
  20. Ramus, F. (2015). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Seminar of the Centre for Educational Neuroscience,Institute of Education, London, 7/01/2015.
  21. Ramus, F. (2014). Neural Basis of Dyslexia. Keynote speaker, 3rd International Colloquium on Reading: Reading disorders, Lisbon, 4-5/12/2014.
  22. Ramus, F. (2014). Neuroanatomical and language variation at the individual level. Workshop on Language evolution and diversity, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 30-31/10/2014.
  23. Ramus, F. (2014). Visual and phonological aspects of dyslexia. Symposium Visuelle Rehabilitation bei Kindern, Bern, Switzerland, 17/10/2014.
  24. Ramus, F. (2014). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Université de Genève, 30/09/2014.
  25. Ramus, F. & Castro, S. L. (2014) O que sabemos sobre o aprendizado da leitura e da escrita? VII Seminário Internacional « Como saber se o aluno foi alfabetizado? », Instituto Alfa e Beto, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 21/08/2014.
  26. Ramus, F. (2014). Neural bases of dyslexia. The Second World Dyslexia Forum - Public Policies: Opening Channels to Early Identification and Best Literacy Practices, Belo Horizonte, Brasil, 18-20/08/2014.
  27. Ramus, F. (2014). Cortical oscillations and brain structure in developmental dyslexia.Centre for Advanced Research on Logic and Sensibility, Keio University, Japan, 14/07/2014.
  28. Ramus, F. (2014). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Keynote speaker, 14th Annual Conference of the Japanese Dyslexia Research Association, Tokyo, Japan 12-13/07/2014.
  29. Ramus, F. (2014). Phonological and visual deficits in developmental dyslexia. Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan, 11/07/2014.
  30. Ramus, F. (2014). Virtues and limits of the dyslexia construct. 28th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Paris, 8-13/07/2014.
  31. Ramus, F. (2014). Imaging language dysfunction in children. Joint Congress of European Neurology, Istanbul, 31/05-3/06/2014.
  32. Ramus, F. (2013). Prédicteurs des capacités de lecture et de la dyslexie développementale à travers 6 langues européennes. Journée Scientifique La dyslexie à l’Université, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-neuve, Belgique, 5/12/2013.
  33. Hippolyte, L., Maillard-Wermelinger, A., Siffredi, V., Martin, S., Schneider, L., Munsch, S., Ramus, F., Draganski, B., Reymond, A., Beckmann, J. S., Jacquemont, S. (2013). Neuropsychological profile in carriers of the 600kb 16p11.2 microdeletion. Poster presented at the Journée Romande de Neuropsychologie, Lausanne, 14/11/2013.
  34. Roux, P., Forgeot d’Arc, B., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). Is the Theory of Mind deficit in schizophrenia explained by an impaired attention toward faces? Paper presented at the4th European Conference on Schizophrenia Research, Berlin, 26-28/09/2013.
  35. Ramus, F. (2013). Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. Keynote speaker, 4th All European Conference of the European Dyslexia Association, Växjö, Sweden, 20-22/09/2013.
  36. Ramus, F. (2013). Eyetracking investigations of social cognition in schizophrenia. CCD Seminar series, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 9/08/2013.
  37. Ramus, F. (2013). The nature of phonological deficits in developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment. Colloquium of MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, Australia, 7/08/2013.
  38. Ramus, F. (2013). What phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia? MURDR seminar, CCD, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, 6/08/2013.
  39. Ramus, F. (2013). Cortical oscillations and brain structure in developmental dyslexia. Colloquium of MARCS Institute, University of Western Sydney, Australia, 5/08/2013.
  40. Ramus, F. (2013). Language in developmental and acquired disorders: future directions.Royal Society satellite meeting, Chicheley, UK, 12-13/06/2013.
  41. Ramus, F. (2013). Genes, brain, and cognition. Keynote speaker, 3rd Conference of the Hellenic Cognitive Science Society, Athens, Greece, 6-7/06/2013.
  42. Ramus, F. (2013). Predictors of reading and spelling ability and of developmental dyslexia across European orthographies. 3rd Conference of the Hellenic Cognitive Science Society, Athens, Greece, 6-7/06/2013.
  43. Ramus, F. (2013). The neural and genetic bases of dyslexia. Keynote speaker, International Workshop on Reading and Developmental Dyslexia Part 2 – From theory to practice, San Sebastian, Spain, 1/06/2013.
  44. Ramus, F. & Wimmer, H. (2013). Results and non-results in the neuroimaging of dyslexia (debate). International Workshop on Reading and Developmental Dyslexia Part 1 – Theoretical perspectives, San Sebastian, Spain, 30-31/05/2013.
  45. Roux, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). An eyetracking investigation of intentional motion perception in schizophrenia.Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, 13-16/04/2013.
  46. Jednoróg, K., Marchewka, A., Gawron, N., Altarelli, I., Ramus, F., & Heim, S. (2013).Multisite voxel based morphometry study of reading accuracy in control and dyslexic children. Poster presented at the Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, Oxford, UK, 11-13/04/2013.
  47. Zhao, J. J., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Altarelli, I., Dubois, J., & Ramus, F. (2013). Dissection of the arcuate fasciculus in dyslexic and control children.Poster presented at the Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, UK, 11-13/04/2013.
  48. Altarelli, I., Leroy, F., Galaburda, A. M., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2013). Planum temporale asymmetry in developmental dyslexia: revisiting an old question.Poster presented at the Third Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, Oxford, UK, 11-13/04/2013.
  49. Ramus, F. (2013). Cortical Oscillations and Phonology in DyslexiaThird Oxford-Kobe Symposium: The neurobiological basis of developmental dyslexia in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts, Oxford, 11-13/04/2013.
  50. Roux, P., Passerieux, C., & Ramus, F. (2013). An eyetracking investigation of intentional motion perception in schizophrenia. Paper presented at the Symposium on Cognitive disorders and remediation in schizophrenia and other mental diseases, Strasbourg, 18-20/03/2013.
  51. Ramus, F., Marshall, C. R., Rosen, S., & van der Lely, H. K. J. (2013). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Paper presented at the Meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, London, 3-4/01/2013.
  52. Ramus, F. (2012). Developmental dyslexia: from genes to brain to cognition. XXIème Congresso Nazionale AIRIPA, Bari, Italie, 12-13/10/2012.
  53. Ramus, F. (2012). Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model. Brainglot seminar, 21/09/2012, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelone.
  54. Lehongre, K., Morillon, B., Ramus, F., & Giraud, A. L. (2012). Auditory sampling in dyslexia: a combined EEG/fMRI study. Poster presented at the 18th International Conference on Biomagnetism, Paris, 26-30/08/2012.
  55. Ramus, F. (2012). Cognitive, neural and genetic bases of developmental dyslexia. II Congresso Internacional Transdisciplinar sobre a criança e o adolescente
A Linguagem, o Corpo e a Escrita, Santa Cruz de Cabralia, Brazil, 25-28/07/2012.
  56. Forgeot d'Arc, B., Moukawane, S., Delorme, R., Zalla, T., Amsellem, F., Letellier, L., & Ramus, F. (2012). Social Cognition Development from School-Age to Adulthood. Poster presented at Innovative Research in Autism, 30/05-1/06/2012, Tours.
  57. Ramus, F. (2012). Bases cognitives, cérébrales et génétiques de la dyslexie développementale. Colloque Le cerveau dans tous ses états – Neurosciences, sciences cognitives et pédagogie, Namur, Belgique, 14-16/05/2012.
  58. Ramus, F., & Forgeot d'Arc, B. (2012). Spex: A computerized battery to routinely evaluate perception, social cognition and executive function in clinical populations. Workshop « Social neurosciences and schizophrenia: from fundamental research to clinical application », Versailles, 3/05/2012.
  59. Ramus, F. (2012). Recent advances in dyslexia research: in search of underlying biological and cognitive deficits. Seminar of the Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 11/04/2012.
  60. Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2012). Anatomical correlates of literacy in normal and dyslexic populations. Paper presented at the Thirtieth European Workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology: An interdisciplinary approach, Bressanone, 22-27/01/2012.
  61. Ramus, F. (2011). What genetics tells us (or not) about language. Neuroscience, Psychology and Philosophy Workshop, Birkbeck College, London, 10/10/2011.
  62. Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., Pressnitzer, D., & Giraud, A. L. (2011). Altered cortical entrainment to fast acoustic modulations reflect phonological and working memory deficit in dyslexia. Paper presented at the 17th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Donostia - San Sebastian, 29/09-2/10/2011.
  63. Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., & Giraud, A. L. (2011, 25-29/09/11). Auditory cortex entrainment to syllabic rate in control and dyslexic individuals. Poster presented at the XI International Conference on Cognitive Neuroscience, Palma, Mallorca.
  64. Ramus, F. (2011). Genetics and neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia. ENP Days, Paris, 7-9/09/2011.
  65. Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2011). Anatomical correlates of literacy in normal and dyslexic populations. Poster presented at the Human Brain Mapping, Québec, 26-30/06/2011.
  66. Jednorog, K., Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2011). Brain anatomy of children socioeconomic status. Poster presented at the Human Brain Mapping, Québec, 26-30/06/2011.
  67. Lehongre, K., Ramus, F., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., Pressnitzer, D., & Giraud, A. L. (2011). Altered cortical synchronization to auditory stimuli in dyslexia. Paper presented at the British Dyslexia Association International Conference, Harrogate, UK, 2-4/06/2011.
  68. Ramus, F., Iannuzzi, S., Valdois, S., & Genedys consortium. (2011). Phonological vs. visual deficits in developmental dyslexia : Insights from a population of French children. Paper presented at the British Dyslexia Association International Conference, Harrogate, UK, 2-4/06/2011.
  69. Forgeot d'Arc, B., Chevallier, C., Grèzes, J., & Ramus, F. (2011). Belief attribution despite heavy verbal interference in autism.Poster presented at the IMFAR, San Diego, 12-14/05/2011.
  70. Altarelli, I., Monzalvo, K., Fluss, J., Billard, C., Dehaene-Lambertz, G., & Ramus, F. (2011). Cortical thickness differences between dyslexic and normal reading children in ventral occipito-temporal regions. Poster presented at Wiring the Brain: Making Connections, Powerscourt, Co Wicklow Ireland, 12-15/04/2011.
  71. Ramus, F. (2011). Predictors of dyslexia and reading ability, in French and in 5 other languages. Facoltà di Psicologia, U. di Milano Bicocca, 7/02/2011.
  72. Ramus, F. (2011). Predictors of reading ability and developmental dyslexia in French and across six European languages. Neuroscience and Education Workshop, Sevilla, 14-15/01/2011.
  73. Ramus, F., Iannuzzi, S., Valdois, S., & Genedys consortium. (2011). Phonological vs. visual deficits in developmental dyslexia : Insights from a population of French children.Paper presented at the Meeting of the Experimental Psychology Society, London, 6-7/01/2011.
  74. Ramus, F. (2010). Predictors of reading ability and developmental dyslexia in French and across six European languages. Second France-Israel symposium
on mid-level audition, Jerusalem, 4-5/10/2010.
  75. Landerl, K., Ramus, F., & Neurodys consortium. (2010). Dyslexia in six different orthographies: Associations with phonological awareness, phonological working memory and naming speed. Paper presented at the 17th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Berlin, 7-10/07/2010.
  76. Minagawa-Kawai, Y., van der Lely, H. K. J., Ramus, F., Sato, Y., Mazuka, R., & Dupoux, E. (2010). Optical brain imaging reveals auditory general and language specific processing in early infant development. Child Language SeminarCity University London, 24-25 June 2010.
  77. Lehongre, K., Villiermet, N., Schwartz, D., Pressnitzer, D., Ramus, F., & Giraud, A. L. (2010). Alteration of speech segmentation mechanisms in dyslexia. Poster presented at Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, 6-10/06/10.
  78. Ramus, F. (2010). The phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. World Dyslexia Forum, UNESCO, Paris, 3-5/02/2010. (in French)
Last job offers
M1 or M2
- Internship
LaboratoryLaboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique
TeamCognitive development and pathology
ThemeLanguage & communication
Adviser
  • Franck Ramus
Length of internshipminimum 3 months
M1 or M2
- Internship
LaboratoryLaboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique
TeamCognitive development and pathology
Adviser
  • Franck Ramus
Length of internshipminimum 3 months
M1 or M2
- Internship
LaboratoryLaboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique
TeamCognitive development and pathology
Adviser
  • Franck Ramus
Length of internshipminimum 3 months